Mecanum wheel is a wheel made by several rollers attached to its circumference at 45-degree angle to the axis of rotation of the wheel. This makes the wheel exert force in diagonal direction when moving forward of backward.
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Mecanum Wheels construction (Design)
Mecanum wheels are based on tireless wheels with a row of rubber outer rollers at an angle. These rollers generally have an axis of rotation 45 ° to wheel plane and 45 ° to the axle line.  Each Mecanum wheel is an independent non-steering wheel with its own propulsion mechanism and, when rotated, produces a driving force perpendicular to the roller axis, which can be directed to the longitudinal and transverse components associated with the vehicle.
Movement in all directions:
- straight forward motion,
- sideways motion,
- diagonal motion,
- motion around a bend,
- rotation around the center of the axis
Mecanum’s signature design is a four-wheel configuration, as shown by either the URANUS omnidirectional mobile robot  (pictured) or a wheelchair with Mecanum wheels (similar to the one in the photo).  alternates with the left and right wheels, where the axle at the top of the wheel is parallel to the diagonal of the vehicle frame (and therefore perpendicular to the diagonal when it is in contact with the ground at the bottom of the wheel). In this way, each wheel creates traction approximately parallel to the diagonals of the corresponding frame. By changing the speed and direction of each wheel, the vector addition of forces at each wheel creates linear motion and rotation of the vehicle so that it can maneuver with minimal footprint. As an example:
• Starting all four wheels in the same direction at the same speed will result in forward / backward motion because the longitudinal force vectors are added but the transverse vectors are canceled.
• Operation (all at the same speed) on both wheels on one side in one direction while the other side in the opposite direction causes the vehicle to stand still when the lateral vector is canceled but the longitudinal vector is connected to a rotation to produce torque on the vertical center axis of the vehicle;
• Removing (all at the same speed) diagonal wheels in one direction while other diagnoses in the opposite direction result in lateral motion when the transverse vectors are added but the longitudinal vectors are canceled.
The combination of differential gear movement allows the car to move in almost any direction at every turn.
Use of Mecanum Wheels
The US Navy purchased the Elon patent and it was processed by researchers in Panama City, Florida in the 1980s. The US Navy uses it to transport objects around the ship. In 1997, Airtrax Incorporated and several other US Navy companies paid $ 2,500 for technology rights, including old drawings of how motors and controls work, to build omnidirectional forklifts that can maneuver confined spaces such as the deck of an aircraft carrier. . This vehicle has been produced.
Tracked vehicles and sliders use a similar turning method. However, these vehicles are usually pulled to the ground when turning and can severely damage soft or brittle surfaces. High friction against the ground when rotating also requires a motor with high torque to overcome this friction. In comparison, the design of the Mecanum wheel allows it to rotate in place with minimal ground friction and torque.